瑞典监管机构支持扩建SFR中低放废物处置库

2019-01-23 09:05中海华
瑞典监管机构支持扩建SFR中低放废物处置库
中国核能 
       根据瑞典的“环境法”,应该允许扩大现有SFR中低放废物处置库的规模,该国家的辐射安全局(SSM)已向斯德哥尔摩的土地和环境法院提出建议。
Forsmark核电站附近的SFR设施。现有部件以灰色显示,计划的扩展部分以蓝色显示(图片:SKB)
       位于Östhammar市Forsmark的SFR储存库位于波罗的海底部50米处。它包括四个160米长的岩石拱顶和基岩中的一个房间,以及一个50米高的混凝土筒仓,用于放射性最大的废物。两条平行的一公里长的通道将设施连接到地面。存放在SFR中的大部分短寿命废物 - 始于1988年开始运作 - 来自瑞典核电厂,但医院,兽医,研究和工业的放射性废物也存放在其中。该设施目前有能力储存约63,000立方米的废物。
       负责储存瑞典核废料的公司SvenskKärnbränslehanteringAB(SKB)于2014年12月申请将SFR设施的规模扩大三倍,达到约20万立方米。储存库的扩展部分将包括六个新的岩石室。
       SSM和土地与环境法院正在审查该申请。SSM正在考虑该国“核活动法”规定的核设施核安全和辐射问题。土地和环境法院进行的审查以“环境法”为基础。根据“环境法”的申请包括辐射安全问题,SMM是法院的转介机构。
       SSM昨天向土地和环境法院发布声明,建议SKB根据“环境法”获得扩展许可。
       “瑞典辐射安全局认为,根据环境法规,SKB可以获得SFR扩展业务的许可证,”SSM说。“根据当局对申请立场的需要,我们认为环境影响评估可以得到批准,并且SKB遵守了环境守则关于保护人类和环境免受有害影响的一般规则电离辐射。“
       SSM表示已经得出结论,SKB选择SFR设施废物储存的方法和位置时考虑了环境法规的要求。“SKB已经证明,在其应用中报告的参考设计可以实现长期辐射安全,并且该设备的扩建和运行可以以辐射安全的方式进行,”它说。“此外,管理局认为,就辐射安全问题而言,SKB已证明公司具备应用业务遵守环境守则规定所需的能力和能力。”
       SKB在土地和环境法院申请的主要听证会预计将在今年晚些时候举行,之后法院将根据“环境法”向政府提交关于是否批准许可证的评估。SSM将根据“核活动法”向政府单独发布评估申请。授权该项目的最终决定将由政府作出。
       SKB首席执行官EvaHalldén表示,“我们很高兴管理局的评估是,SKB已经证明扩展的SFR在运营和长期内都是安全的。” 该公司指出,扩大SFR是瑞典核电厂退役最终处置中低放废物的先决条件。
Swedish regulator supports repository expansion
       A permit for the expansion of the existing SFR repository for low- and intermediate-level waste should be granted under the Sweden's Environmental Code, the country's Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has recommended to the Land and Environment Court in Stockholm.
The SFR facility near the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The existing part is shown in grey, with the planned extension shown in blue (Image: SKB)
       The SFR repository at Forsmark, in the municipality of Östhammar, is situated 50 meters below the bottom of the Baltic Sea. It comprises four 160-meter-long rock vaults and a chamber in the bedrock, with a 50-meter-high concrete silo for the most radioactive waste. Two parallel one-kilometer-long access tunnels link the facility to the surface. Most of the short-lived waste deposited in the SFR - which began operations in 1988 - comes from Swedish nuclear power plants, but radioactive waste from hospitals, veterinary medicine, research and industry is also deposited within it. The facility currently has the capacity to store about 63,000 cubic meters of waste.
       Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB), the company responsible for storing Sweden's nuclear waste, applied in December 2014 to triple the size of the SFR facility, to about 200,000 cubic meters. The extended part of the repository will consist of six new rock chambers.
       The application is being reviewed by both SSM and the Land and Environment Court. The SSM is considering issues of nuclear safety and radiation at the facilities as laid down in the country's Nuclear Activities Act. The review undertaken by the Land and Environment Court is based on the Environmental Code. When applications under the Environmental Code include issues on radiation safety, the SMM is the referral body for the court.
       SSM yesterday issued a statement to the Land and Environment Court recommending that SKB is granted a permit for the expansion under the Environmental Code.
       "The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority considers that SKB can be granted a permit under the Environmental Code for expanded operations at SFR," SSM said. "Based on the authority's need for a basis for taking a position on the application, we believe that the environmental impact assessment can be approved and that SKB has complied with the general rules of the Environmental Code on protecting people and the environment against the harmful effects of ionising radiation."
       SSM said it has concluded that SKB's choice of method and location for the waste storage at the SFR facility takes into account the requirements of the Environmental Code. "SKB has shown that long-term radiation safety can be achieved with the reference design it reported in its application, and that the expansion and operation of the plant can be carried out in a radiation-safe manner," it said. "Furthermore, the Authority considers that SKB, for the issue of radiation safety, has shown that the company has the competence and ability required for the applied business to comply with the provisions of the Environmental Code."
       The main hearing for SKB's application in the Land and Environment Court is expected later this year, after which the court will submit its assessment to the government on whether the permit should be granted under the Environmental Code. SSM will separately issue its assessment to the government of the application under the Nuclear Activities Act. The final decision to authorise the project will then be made by the government.
       SKB CEO Eva Halldén said, "We are pleased that the Authority's assessment is that SKB has shown that an expanded SFR remains safe during both operations and in the long term." The company noted that an expansion of SFR is a prerequisite for the final disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste from the decommissioning of Sweden's nuclear power plants.
来源:核设施退役及放射性废物管理